SARS-CoV-2 and the Vaccination Hype

Authors: Piero Sangaletti Edge-Institute Austria at ER-System Mechatronics, Golling, Austria, Advisory Board of Concerned Scientists, Tampa, Florida USA, Antonietta GattiCofounder and Principal Investigator of Nanodiagnostics, SRL (Società a Responsabilità Limitata), Italy. Clemens Arvay Independent scientist and textbook author in Health Ecology, Vienna and Graz,

Abstract

The engineered spike protein of SARS-COV-2, and the corresponding infectious disease COVID-19 attributed to it, hold in their grip a large portion of humanity. The global race for a counter strategy quickly turned into a search for a vaccine as the preferred means to contain the virus. An unusually rapid development of different and completely new classes of experimental therapies that would widely be referred to as “vaccines” raised questions about safety, especially with regard to emergency use approval (EUA) being granted with unprecedented urgency and hardly any critical scrutiny. At present, independent researchers, even some former proponents and insiders, of the currently ongoing global experiment represented as a “vaccination” campaign point primarily to the lack of public safety studies based on empirical datasets that should be obtainable for the tens of millions, even hundreds of millions, of doses of mRNA and DNA vector therapeutics being distributed as “vaccines”. Studies regarding efficacy and “side effects” (sometimes fatalities or permanent iatrogenic injuries) of these experimental therapies have been by-passed in favor of short-term field data from real patients which inevitably raises scientific and ethical questions particularly in view of the fact that the persons and entities responsible for public safety hold deep financial and other vested interests in speeding along the distribution of the experimental pharmaceutical products. The lack of an open discussion about the experimental therapies for COVID-19 now being applied across all age groups, even children hardly impacted by COVID-19, is worrying. The core principle of open debate without pre-conceptions or vested interests in outcomes has been and continues to be utterly ignored. We hope to engage scientific discussion with the hope of helping decision-makers, the general public, and the media alike to consider the subject-matter of what is at stake in a context of reason rather than panic.

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HHS Secretary Becerra Claims COVID Vaccines ‘Kill People Of Color’ At ‘Twice The Rate Of Whites,’ Vows To ‘Work’ Harder To Get More People Vaccinated

Authors: Alicia Powe Published April 19, 2022

After months of mandates forcing people to get two and three doses of COVID-19 vaccines to keep their jobs attend, school, travel and enter indoor venues, the federal government admits the experimental gene modification shots are killing people.

While vowing to ramp up biomedical tyranny and the effort to get more Americans vaccinated, U.S. Health and Human Services Director Xavier Becerra Experimental claimed the “safe and effective” mRNA shots are killing people with dark skin at a much higher rate than those with light skin.

“By the way, we know that vaccines are killing people of color — blacks, Latinos, indigenous people — at about two times the rate of white Americans,” Becerra explained during a digital “White House Convening on Equity” seminar on April 14.

After months of mandates forcing people to get two and three doses of COVID-19 vaccines to keep their jobs attend, school, travel and enter indoor venues, the federal government admits the experimental gene modification shots are killing people.

While vowing to ramp up biomedical tyranny and the effort to get more Americans vaccinated, U.S. Health and Human Services Director Xavier Becerra Experimental claimed the “safe and effective” mRNA shots are killing people with dark skin at a much higher rate than those with light skin.

“By the way, we know that vaccines are killing people of color — blacks, Latinos, indigenous people — at about two times the rate of white Americans,” Becerra explained during a digital “White House Convening on Equity” seminar on April 14.

After acknowledging the lethality of COVID shots, Becerra explained that approximately 80 percent of the American public is vaccinated.

But the government needs to “work” harder to vaccinate Americans who have refrained from getting inoculated, he argued.

“So, on vaccines, last year, we saw that about two-thirds of white American adults had received at least one shot of vaccine,” Becerra said. “That was just barely over 50 percent for black Americans and Latinos at that particular time. So, again, we’ve got to work.

“Today, a year later, over 80 percent of white American adults have received at least one shot. Over 80% of black American adults have received at least one shot. Over 80 percent of Latino Americans have received at least one vaccine shot.”

While HHS acknowledges the deadly effects COVID vaccines have on minority communities, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Vaccine Adverse Effects System confirms the COVID shots are killing more people than any other vaccine in history.

According to VAERS, only 421 vaccine-related deaths in 2020 prior to the administration of the mRNA shots. In 2021, the number of people who dies after getting vaccinated precipitously spiked with at least 21,914 people died after receiving the COVID shots.

As yet, 5689 people died after receiving a COVID vaccine in 2022.

Meanwhile, the CDC is deploying fleets of federally funded “pandemic” buses to minority communities across the nation to persuade unvaccinated Americans into getting jabbed.

As reported, the CDC’s PANDEMIC (Program to Alleviate National Disparities in Ethnic and Minority Immunizations in the Community) deploys teams of health care workers into minority communities to educate people about why they need to be vaccinated.

According to PANDEMIC grant program materials, PANDEMIC’s goal is to reach groups that may experience “immunization disparities” in racial and ethnic minorities, residents of rural communities, migrant farmworkers, Native Americans, Hispanics, Blacks, and people identifying as part of the LGBTQ community and boost vaccination rates in areas chosen for having “high vaccine-hesitancy rate. ”

“If people aren’t sure [that they want the vaccine], then we have educational materials, and our community health workers and the extension agents will talk to them about their particular questions and try to answer their questions and their concerns. And then…[we] immediately give them the vaccine,” explained Catherine Striley of the University of Florida, who helps oversee the PANDEMIC project.

Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19

Authors: Stephanie Seneff Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge MA, 02139, USA, Greg Nigh Naturopathic Oncology, Immersion Health, Portland, OR 97214, USA International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research

Abstract

Operation Warp Speed brought to market in the United States two mRNA vaccines, produced by Pfizer and Moderna. Interim data suggested high efficacy for both of these vaccines, which helped legitimize Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the FDA. However, the exceptionally rapid movement of these vaccines through controlled trials and into mass deployment raises multiple safety concerns. In this review we first describe the technology underlying these vaccines in detail. We then review both components of and the intended biological response to these vaccines, including production of the spike protein itself, and their potential relationship to a wide range of both acute and long-term induced pathologies, such as blood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and autoimmune diseases. Among these potential induced pathologies, we discuss the relevance of prion-protein-related amino acid sequences within the spike protein. We also present a brief review of studies supporting the potential for spike protein “shedding”, transmission of the protein from a vaccinated to an unvaccinated person, resulting in symptoms induced in the latter. We finish by addressing a common point of debate, namely, whether or not these vaccines could modify the DNA of those receiving the vaccination. While there are no studies demonstrating definitively that this is happening, we provide a plausible scenario, supported by previously established pathways for transformation and transport of genetic material, whereby injected mRNA could ultimately be incorporated into germ cell DNA for transgenerational transmission. We conclude with our recommendations regarding surveillance that will help to clarify the long-term effects of these experimental drugs and allow us to better assess the true risk/benefit ratio of these novel technologies.

How Vaccine Messaging Confused The Public

Authors: John Gibson the Brownstone Institute 

Pivotal randomized control trials (RCTs) underpinning approval of Covid-19 vaccines did not set out to, and did not, test if the vaccines prevent transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Nor did the trials test if the vaccines reduce mortality risk. A review of seven phase III trials, including those for Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines, found the criterion the vaccines were trialled against was just reduced risk of Covid-19 symptoms

There should be no secret about these facts, as they were discussed in August 2020 in the BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal); one of the oldest and most widely cited medical journals in the world. Moreover, this was not an isolated article, as the editor-in-chief also gave her own summary of the vaccine-testing situation, which has proved very prescient:

“…we are heading for vaccines that reduce severity of illness rather than protect against infection [and] provide only short-lived immunity, … as well as damaging public confidence and wasting global resources by distributing a poorly effective vaccine, this could change what we understand a vaccine to be. Instead of long-term, effective disease prevention it could become a suboptimal chronic treatment.”It was not just the BMJ covering these features of the RCTs. When health bureaucrats Rochelle Walensky, Henry Walke and Anthony Fauci claimed (in the Journal of the American Medical Association) that “clinical trials have shown that the vaccines authorized for use in the US are highly effective against Covid-19 infection, severe illness and death” this was felt sufficiently false that the journal published a comment simply titled “Inaccurate Statement.”

The basis of the comment was that the primary endpoint for the RCTs was symptoms of Covid-19; a less exacting standard than testing to show efficacy against infection, severe illness, and death.

Yet these aspects of the vaccine trials discussed in medical journals are largely unknown by the general public. To measure public understanding of the Covid-19 vaccine trials I added a question about the vaccine testing to an ongoing nationally representative survey of adult New Zealanders.

While not top-of-mind for most readers, New Zealand is a useful place for finding out about public understanding of the vaccine trials. Until recently, when a few doses of AstraZeneca and Novavax vaccines were allowed, it was 100% Pfizer, making it easy to word the survey question very specifically about the Pfizer vaccine trials.

Also, New Zealanders were vaccinated in a very short period, just prior to the survey. In late August 2021 New Zealand was last in the OECD in dosing rates but by December, when the survey was fielded, it had jumped into the top half of the OECD, with vaccinations rising by an average of 110 doses per 100 people in just over three months. 

This rapid rise in vaccination was partly driven by mandates, for health, education, police, and emergency workers and also by a vaccine passport system that blocked the unvaccinated from most places. The mandates were strictly applied, and even people suffering adverse reactions after their first shot, such as Bell’s Palsy and pericarditis, still had to get the second shot. The vaccine passport law had gone through Parliament just prior to the survey, so the vaccines, and what was expected of them, should have been utmost in peoples’ minds. 

The other relevant factor about New Zealand is the government-dominated media, which is either publicly funded, or is heavily subsidized by a “public interest journalism fund” and by generous government advertising of the Covid-19 vaccines. Also, supposedly independent commentators prominent in the media got their talking points about the vaccines from the government in a carefully orchestrated public relations campaign. 

Thus, it was mainly overseas journalists who expressed concern when New Zealand’s Prime Minister made the Orwellian claim that in matters of Covid-19 and vaccines: “Dismiss anything else, we will continue to be your single source of truth.”

Yet a government-controlled media and a vaccine advertising blitz yielded widespread public misunderstanding about the testing the vaccines underwent in pivotal trials. The survey asked if the Pfizer vaccine had been trialled against: (a) preventing infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, or (b) reducing risk of getting symptoms of Covid-19, or (c) reducing risk of getting serious sick or dying, or (d) all of the above. The correct answer is (b), the trials only set out to test if the vaccines reduced the risk of getting Covid-19 symptoms.

Only four percent of respondents got the right answer. In other words, 96 percent of adult New Zealanders thought the Covid-19 vaccines were tested against more demanding criteria than is actually the case. 

Currently, most Covid-19 cases in New Zealand are post-vaccination. And despite almost everyone being vaccinated, and most boosted, the rate of new confirmed Covid-19 cases is one of the highest in the world. As people see with their own eyes that one can still get infected they may question what they have been led to (mis)understand about the vaccines.

Elsewhere it is noted that vaccine fanaticism—especially denying natural immunity—fuels vaccine scepticism. As people see that public health authorities lied about natural immunity they will wonder if they also lied about vaccine efficacy. Likewise, as they realise they were given a misleading impression about what the vaccines were trialled against they might doubt other claims about vaccines.

In particular, by believing the vaccines were tested against more demanding criteria than was actually so, public expectations of what vaccination would achieve were likely too high. As the public witnesses a failure of mass vaccination to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections, and a failure to reduce overall mortality, scepticism about these and other vaccines will grow.

In New Zealand this issue is exacerbated by the Prime Minister creating a false equivalence between Covid-19 vaccines and measles vaccines. Currently the paediatric vaccination rate (which includes the measles vaccine) for indigenous Maori has dropped 12 percentage points in two years and 0.3 million measles vaccines had to be discarded after expiring due to lack of demand. The advertising for Covid-19 vaccines particularly targets Maori, with claims that boosters will protect them against Omicron. The progress of infections is likely to prove this claim to be largely untrue, and so Maori are likely to be even more sceptical about future vaccination, even for vaccines that truly can be described as ‘safe and effective.’

If politicians and health bureaucrats had been honest with the public, setting out the criteria the Covid-19 vaccines were trialed against, and what could and could not be expected of the vaccines, then this widespread misunderstanding need not have occurred. Instead, their lack of honesty is likely to damage future vaccination efforts and harm public health.

Pfizer Hired 600 Employees Due To ‘Large Increase In Adverse Event

Authors: Zachary Stieb The Epoch Times  March 9, 2022

Pfizer hired 600 employees in the months after its COVID-19 vaccine was authorized in the United States due to the “large increase” of reports of side effects linked to the vaccine, according to a document prepared by the company.

Pfizer has “taken multiple actions to help alleviate the large increase in adverse event reports,” according to the document. “This includes significant technology enhancements, and process and workflow solutions, as well as increasing the number of data entry and case processing colleagues.”

At the time when the document—from the first quarter of 2021—was sent to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Pfizer had onboarded about 600 extra full-time workers to deal with the jump.

“More are joining each month with an expected total of more than 1,800 additional resources by the end of June 2021,” Pfizer said.

The document was titled a “cumulative analysis of post-authorization adverse event reports” of Pfizer’s vaccine received through Feb. 28, 2021. It was approved by the FDA on April 30, 2021.

The document was not made public until the Public Health and Medical Professionals for Transparency sued the FDA after the agency claimed it needed decades to produce all the documents relating to the emergency use authorization granted to the company for the vaccine.

Under an agreement reached in February, the FDA must produce a certain number of pages each month.

The analysis of adverse event reports was previously disclosed to the health transparency group, but certain portions were redacted (pdf), including the number of workers Pfizer onboarded to deal with the jump in adverse event reports.

“We asked that the redactions on page 6 of this report be lifted and the FDA agreed without providing an explanation,” Aaron Siri, a lawyer representing the plaintiffs, told The Epoch Times in an email.

After the document was produced, the FDA determined that the three redactions on that page “could be lifted,” an FDA spokesperson told The Epoch Times via email.

The redactions had been made under (b) (4) of the Freedom of Information Act, which lets agencies “withhold trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person which is privileged or confidential.”

The unredacted version of the document also now shows that approximately 126 million doses of Pfizer were shipped around the world since the company received the first clearance, from U.S. regulators, on Dec. 1, 2020. The shipments took place through Feb. 28, 2021.

It was unclear how many of those doses had been administered as of that date.

Pfizer did not respond to emailed questions, including how many workers it has onboarded to deal with adverse events.

The companies that manufacture the other two COVID-19 vaccines that U.S. regulators have cleared, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, did not respond when asked if they have seen an increase in adverse events and if they have hired more employees to deal with reports.

The number of post-vaccination adverse event reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, jointly run by the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has spiked since the vaccines were first cleared.

Problems linked to the vaccines include heart inflammation, blood clotting, and severe allergic shock.

Federal officials say the vaccines’ benefits outweigh the risks, but some experts are increasingly questioning that assertion, particularly for certain populations.

Spike protein in mRNA COVID vaccines: One of the most bioactive substances known to mankind

Source: https://www.planet-today.com/2022/03/spike-protein-in-mrna-covid-vaccines.html

The spike protein present in Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines is one of the most bioactive and potentially damaging substances known to mankind. It penetrates the blood-brain barrier, cell nucleus and even affects DNA replication. The spike protein appears to reprogram the immune system in a strange way. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against the COVID-19 virus has been shown to reprogram both adaptive and innate immune responses. When it penetrates the cell nuclei, the free-floating spike protein inhibits DNA repair. There had been immune system problems in the vaccinated, and it is becoming apparent that they do not actually develop broad natural immunity. Instead, they produce more S antibodies against the spike protein that they were originally vaccinated with. A recent surveillance report from the U.K. Health Security Agency showed that N antibody levels appear to be lower in individuals who acquire infection following two doses of the vaccine. This means that the vaccines interfere with the immune system’s ability to produce antibodies against the virus following infection. In the case of the N antibody, this is shown to be against the nucleocapsid protein, which serves as the shell of the virus and is an important part of the immune system response of the unvaccinated population. (Related: After you are vaccine damaged, if you complain about symptoms you will be REQUIRED to take psychiatric medications until your “disorder” is cured.) If any mutations to the spike protein of the COVID virus occur in the future, the vaccinated will be more vulnerable and may possibly be unprotected due to their inability to produce the N antibody. Meanwhile, the unvaccinated would have much better immunity to any mutations due to their ability to produce both S and N antibodies after infection. America’s Front Line Doctors also warned that vaccines are turning people’s bodies into walking spike protein factories, which causes the body to create antibodies to them. “First, these vaccines ‘mis-train’ the immune system to recognize only a small part of the virus [the spike protein]. Variants that differ, even slightly, in this protein are able to escape the narrow spectrum of antibodies created by the vaccines,” AFLDS explained. “Second, the vaccines create ‘vaccine addicts,’ meaning persons become dependent upon regular booster shots because they have been ‘vaccinated’ only against a tiny portion of a mutating virus.” The group also cited Australian Health Minister Dr. Kerry Chant, who said that COVID will become endemic and people will have to get used to taking endless vaccines. Finally, there is the simple fact that the vaccines do not, in any way, prevent infection in the nose and upper airways, which is where fully vaccinated people tend to show the highest viral loads. Immune problems and other vaccine infections Vaccinated individuals have also encountered immune problems and reinfections. These conditions, dubbed VAIDS (or Vaccine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), have been very concerning as they could be damaging to individuals. While not an official scientific term, it is important to bring attention to VAIDS, especially for those who are concerned about the immune health of their vaccinated loved ones. In late January, an anti-mandate rally in Italy reiterated the claim that COVID-19 vaccines were toxic and that they could cause a variety of medical catastrophes down the line. Professor Luc Montagnier, a Nobel Prize winner for medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) said himself that those who received the third dose of COVID vaccines should go to the laboratory and take AIDS tests, then sue their governments. If Montagnier and other dissident experts are correct about “the great die-off,” then around one to two billion deaths are to be expected in the near future. If the estimation seems alarming, then people should be more aware of the rising number of adverse effects, including cancers and cardiac problems, that developed worldwide. Even Pfizer itself has a long list of possible adverse events from its vaccines, with nine pages of illnesses barely scratching the surface.

Severe aplastic anemia after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination: Causality or coincidence?

Authors: Shotaro Tabata 1Hiroki Hosoi 2Shogo Murata 1Satomi Takeda 1Toshiki Mushino 1Takashi Sonoki 1PMID: 34920343

PMCID: PMC8668346I: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102782 J Autoimmun. 2022 Jan; 126: 102782.Published online 2021 Dec 14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102782

Abstract

The development of various autoimmune diseases has been reported after COVID-19 infections or vaccinations. However, no method for assessing the relationships between vaccines and the development of autoimmune diseases has been established. Aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome. We report a case of severe AA that arose after the administration of a COVID-19 vaccine (the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine), which was treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this patient, antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were detected both before and after the HSCT. After the patient’s hematopoietic stem cells were replaced through HSCT, his AA improved despite the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In this case, antibodies derived from the COVID-19 vaccine may not have been directly involved in the development of AA. This case suggests that the measurement of vaccine antibody titers before and after allogeneic HSCT may provide clues to the pathogenesis of vaccine-related autoimmune diseases. Although causality was not proven in this case, further evaluations are warranted to assess the associations between vaccines and AA.

1. Introduction

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has drastically reduced the transmission rate of the disease. Studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of the available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, rare cases of adverse immunological reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been reported, including cases involving immune-mediated disease [[1][2][3]]. Although evaluating the associations between SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the development of autoimmune diseases is important, no method for assessing such relationships has been established. Aplastic anemia (AA), a bone marrow failure syndrome, appears to be immune-mediated [4,5]. In addition to T lymphocytes and cytokines, autoantibodies are involved in the development of AA as immunological factors [4]. Here, we report a case of AA that developed after the administration of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and discuss the association between AA and vaccination.

2. Case description

A previously healthy 56-year-old male, who was not taking any medication, was referred to a clinic because of bleeding in the oral cavity after dental therapy. Laboratory tests showed that his white blood cell count (1.6 × 109/l) and platelet count (11 × 109/l) were decreased. Four days before his visit to the clinic, he had received a second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (three weeks after his first dose). He was admitted to our hospital due to progressive pancytopenia (Supplementary Table 1). He had no history of COVID-19 infection. The Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), which is used to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein antibodies, produced a negative result. Tests for immunoglobulin G against cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus produced positive results, but were not indicative of virus reactivation. Serological tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus produced negative results. A bone marrow biopsy revealed a hypocellular marrow (Fig. 1 ). The patient was diagnosed with very severe AA [6]. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing showed DRB1 04:05 04:05, which is not associated with a high frequency of AA. The administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor had no effect on his neutropenia. In spite of the administration of cyclosporine and eltrombopag, his pancytopenia progressed.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

Histological findings of the bone marrow biopsy specimen at diagnosis. Panel A: Hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.) staining (x40) of the bone marrow after the administration of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine showed a markedly hypocellular marrow. Panel B: H.E. staining (x400) showed the replacement of hematopoietic cells by fat and a few nucleated cells.

He underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an HLA haploidentical related donor (Fig. 2 ). The donor had no history of COVID-19 infection and had not received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The conditioning regimen consisted of 120 mg/m2 fludarabine, 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 2.5 mg/kg anti-thymocyte globulin, and 2 Gy of total body irradiation. Tacrolimus and short-term methotrexate were used as a prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Post-transplant cyclophosphamide was not administered because the patient’s HLA-A, C, and DR were homologous, which would not increase the risk of GVHD. The transplanted cells collected from the donor’s bone marrow were transfused into the patient after the removal of red blood cells and plasma. Twenty-one days after the HSCT, neutrophil engraftment was achieved. Chimerism analysis performed on day 29 after the HSCT revealed complete chimerism in the peripheral blood. The patient developed acute GVHD (skin grade 1), which was ameliorated with a topical corticosteroid alone.

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

Evaluation of neutrophil count, The X-axis indicates the number of days after the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was administered. The allogeneic BMT was conducted at 34 days after the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was administered. The gray boxes indicate the titers of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (log scale). BMT, bone marrow transplantation; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CyA, cyclosporine A; TAC, tacrolimus.

The titers of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured before and after the HSCT to examine the association between the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine the patient received and the development of AA. The measurement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody titers was performed by SRL, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) using the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). The titers of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 before the conditioning regimen and 63 days after the HSCT were 540 and 34.9 U/mL (reference range, <0.8 U/mL), respectively (Fig. 2). These results suggest that the AA was ameliorated by the allogeneic HSCT even though anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies continued to be detected after the HSCT.Go to:

3. Discussion

We report a case in which AA developed after the administration of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. No association between new-onset AA and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been reported. The patient in this case underwent allogeneic HSCT. In this patient, antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were detected both before and after the HSCT. After the allogeneic HSCT, the patient’s AA was ameliorated despite the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Our results did not reveal a direct association between antibodies derived from the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and the development of AA. Further studies are needed to investigate the impairment of hematopoiesis induced by immune reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration.

One of the most feared adverse reactions to vaccines is the development of autoimmune disease. To the best of our knowledge, only six cases of newly diagnosed acquired AA have been reported after vaccination [[7][8][9][10][11]] (Table 1 ). However, in general, AA is not recognized as a vaccine-related adverse event [12]. The mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have a novel mechanism of action. Therefore, it is important to collect information about their adverse events. Various cases of autoimmune disease have been reported after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration, including autoimmune hepatitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, immune thrombocytopenia, and acquired hemophilia [3,[13][14][15]]. Patients with AA after COVID-19 infection were also reported [16,17]. Further epidemiological evaluations of the incidence of AA after COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are warranted.

Table 1

Reported cases of newly diagnosed aplastic anemia after vaccinations.

Age (years)SexVaccineTime to symptom onsetTreatmentOutcomeReference
16FRecombinant hepatitis B3 weeks after 3rd doseCorticosteroidImprovedViallard et al. [7]
19FRecombinant hepatitis B10 days after 3rd doseCorticosteroidImprovedAshok Shenoy et al. [8]
25MHepatitis B7 days after 2nd doseAllogeneic HSCTN.A.Shah et al. [9]
19MAnthrax1 monthAllogeneic HSCTN.A.Shah et al. [9]
1.5FVaricella zoster3 weeksNoneImprovedAngelini et al. [10]
25MH1N1 influenza2 weeksAllogeneic HSCTImprovedDonnini et al. [11]
56MSARS-Cov-24 days after 2nd doseAllogeneic HSCTImprovedThis case

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HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; N.A., not applicable; SARS-Cov-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Various cases of vaccine-related autoimmune disease have been reported. Most of these reports have linked vaccination to the development of autoimmune disease based on clinical observations of temporal associations. There is no established method for examining the relationships between vaccines and the development of autoimmune diseases. The pathogenetic mechanisms by which vaccines cause the development of autoimmune disease are still unclear. The major hypotheses relating to such immunological reactions involve epitope mimicry [18,19]. For example, it has been reported that vaccine-derived antibodies may exhibit structural similarities with autoantibodies [18,19]. There is significant evidence that AA is an immune-mediated condition, mainly based on the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy against AA. In addition to T cells and cytokines, autoantibodies are one of the factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of AA [4]. However, autoantibodies specific to AA and the role of autoantibodies for the pathogenesis of AA are unclear. The allogeneic HSCT replaces the recipient’s hematopoietic and associated immune systems with those of the donor. The measurement of vaccine antibody titers before and after allogeneic HSCT may provide a clue to the pathogenesis of vaccine-related autoimmune diseases. The clonal expansion of effector T cells was also reported to occur following vaccination [20]. To understand the link between COVID-19 vaccination and the development of AA, the following needs to be examined: the exploration of autoantibodies against stem cells, the role for molecular mimicry between mRNA vaccine encoded antigens and stem cells, and T-cell subset dynamics after vaccination.

In conclusion, the administered SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine may have contributed to the pathogenesis of AA in this case. However, it is not clear whether antibodies derived from the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine directly contributed to the development of AA because the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remained after the patient’s pancytopenia had been ameliorated by the allogeneic HSCT. Further evaluations in large cohorts are warranted to elucidate the associations between AA and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.Go to:

Authors’ contributions

Shotaro Tabata: Data curation, Investigation, Writing – original draft; Hiroki Hosoi: Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Writing – original draft and Review & Editing; Shogo Murata: Investigation, Writing – review & editing; Satomi Takeda: Data curation, Writing – review & editing; Toshiki Mushino: Writing – review & editing; Takashi Sonoki: Writing – review & editing, Supervision.Go to:

Declaration of competing interest

There are no funding sources associated with the writing of this manuscript. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient.Go to:

Acknowledgements

We thank the patients and clinical staff at Wakayama Medical University Hospital for their participation in this study. We also wish to thank Dr. Takashi Ozaki and Mr. Masaya Morimoto from Kinan Hospital for their helpful diagnostic support.Go to:

Footnotes

Appendix ASupplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102782.Go to:

Appendix A. Supplementary data

The following is the Supplementary data to this article:Multimedia component 1:Click here to view.(12K, xlsx)Multimedia component 1Go to:

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Covid infections in Britain are rising again, and 90 percent of the dead are vaccinated. Have mRNA jabs ruined our chance at herd immunity?

Authors: Alex Berenson

New figures from Britain raise bright red flags about the direction of Covid in wealthy countries that used mRNA and DNA shots to attempt to defeat the coronavirus last year.

Hospitalizations and deaths remain stubbornly high and overwhelmingly occur in vaccinated people. In February, 90 percent of the 1,000 Britons who died each week of Covid were vaccinated.

New infections are not only far higher than they were before the Omicron variant emerged, they are rising again after a brief fall in February. And even boosters appear to offer no protection against hospitalizations in younger people.

British data are crucial both because Britain vaccinated and boosted early and because its datasets are far more complete and less politicized than those in the United States.

Day by day, week by week, the figures are becoming more worrisome. They hint that mRNA and DNA shots may have slowed if not completely halted the natural progression to herd immunity that occurred in earlier respiratory virus epidemics.

In fact, Britain now reports 99 percent of adults have antibodies to Covid, mostly as the result of vaccination. That level is far higher than epidemiologists believed would be necessary to support herd immunity. Yet Covid infections, hospitalizations, and deaths continue unabated. Almost 12,000 Britons are now hospitalized with Covid, more than at this time last year.

The most stunning chart is this one. Each week the British government releases a “surveillance report” which includes Covid deaths by vaccine status.

SOURCE

In the four weeks ending February 27, 397 unvaccinated Britons died of Covid, compared to 3,512 who were vaccinated. Using a broader definition, which may include more incidental deaths unrelated to Covid infections, the numbers are even worse, with 5,871 vaccinated people dying compared to 570 unvaccinated. (The United States does not publicly provide this data; it is not even clear American public health authorities collect it comprehensively.)

The report also shows for the first time that adults under 50 are now just as likely to be hospitalized for Covid whether they are boosted or unvaccinated. The report does not provide a similar hospitalization estimate for people who were vaccinated but unboosted, but based on the raw numbers it does provide, those rates are the highest of all.

Meanwhile, new Covid infections have nearly doubled in Britain in the last two weeks, and now top 60,000 a day. British media outlets have connected the rise to Britain’s “freedom day” on Feb. 24, which marked the legal end of Covid restrictions.

But Britain had already been moving toward normality throughout February, and cases were falling sharply. It is not clear that the legal end to restrictions made much difference behaviorally.

Britain is not alone.

Though elite media outlets have sharply deemphasized reporting on Covid, the epidemic continues unabated in advanced countries. In Europe and the United States, overall death and hospitalization rates remain high as the epidemic enters its third spring. Meanwhile, in South Korea and Japan, which largely avoided serious problems before mRNA vaccinations and the Omicron variant, infections are soaring and deaths following.

In contrast, many poorer countries that used older “inactivated virus” vaccines, or have low overall vaccination rates, have seen their coronavirus epidemics progress in a more traditional pattern.

Infections have risen and then fallen rapidly in distinct seasonal waves. Omicron has not caused off-the-charts spikes in new infections – probably because previous immunity from natural infection is far broader and more valuable against Omicron than vaccine-generated protection.

Here’s India, for example:

India no doubt undertests for Covid cases compared to Western countries, but the pattern is clear. Meanwhile, with a population one-twentieth as large, Britain now has more reported Covid deaths, more than 10 times as many infections, and shows no signs of emerging from its epidemic.

Britain:

When the mRNA jabs began to become available in December 2020, vaccine advocates predicted that poor countries that lacked access to them would face the misery of unceasing Covid epidemics, while wealthy nations would emerge quickly.