Study Finds Teenage Boys Six Times More Likely To Suffer Heart Problems From Vaccine Than Be Hospitalized by COVID

Authors; Paul Joseph Watson via Summit News,

Research conducted by the University of California has found that teenage boys are six times more likely to suffer from heart problems caused by the COVID-19 vaccine than to be hospitalized as a result of COVID-19 itself.

“A team led by Dr Tracy Hoeg at the University of California investigated the rate of cardiac myocarditis – heart inflammation – and chest pain in children aged 12-17 following their second dose of the vaccine,” reports the Telegraph.

“They then compared this with the likelihood of children needing hospital treatment owing to Covid-19, at times of low, moderate and high rates of hospitalisation.”

Researchers found that the risk of heart complications for boys aged 12-15 following the vaccine was 162.2 per million, which was the highest out of all the groups they looked at.

This compares to the risk of a healthy boy being hospitalized as a result of a COVID infection, which is around 26.7 per million, meaning the risk they face from the vaccine is 6.1 times higher.

Even during high risk rates of COVID, such as in January this year, the threat posed by the vaccine is 4.3 times higher, while during low risk rates, the risk of teenage boys suffering a “cardiac adverse event” from the vaccine is a whopping 22.8 times higher.

The research data was based on a study of adverse reactions suffered by teens between January and June this year.

In a sane world, such data should represent the nail in the coffin for the argument that teenagers and children should be mandated to take the coronavirus vaccine, but it obviously won’t.

In the UK, the government is pushing to vaccinate 12-15-year-olds, even without parental consent, despite the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) advising against it.

Meanwhile, in America, Los Angeles County school officials voted unanimously to mandate COVID shots for all

Study: One-third of Americans were infected with COVID by December 2020

Authors: Michael Gartland, New York Daily News  20 hrs ago

Nearly one-third of the entire U.S. population had been infected with COVID-19 by the end of 2020 — a much higher rate of infection than previously known, a new study has found.

The study, which was conducted by researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and published in the journal Nature on Thursday, reveals that 103 million Americans, or 31% of the population, had been infected by December 2020 — and that the rate of infection in New York City at the time was even higher at 44%.

“The vast majority of infectious were not accounted for by the number of confirmed cases,” said Jeffrey Shaman, one of the report’s researchers and a professor of environmental health sciences at the Mailman School. “It is these undocumented cases, which are often mild or asymptomatic infectious, that allow the virus to spread quickly through the broader population.”

The study aimed to account for a lack of testing early in the pandemic and the fact that people with no or few symptoms were less likely to get tested.

Its findings, when paired with COVID-19 test results from the end of December 2020, reveal a stark divide.

While the study estimates that 31% of the overall U.S. population had been infected by December, the Centers for Disease Control put out statistics that same month showing only 12.3% of COVID-19 tests taken at the time were positive.

The peer-reviewed research found that by the end of 2020, infection rates were particularly high in several regions and in big cities, with 48% of people in Chicago infected, 52% of Los Angeles and 42% of Miami.

In parts of the Midwest like Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa, more than 60% of the population had been infected, the study found.

“While the landscape has changed with the availability of vaccines and the spread of new variants, it is important to recognize just how dangerous the pandemic was in its first year,” said Sen Pei, one of the researchers and an assistant professor at Mailman.

“We Don’t Understand What’s Really Happening” – The CDC Is Under-Counting ‘Breakthrough’ COVID Cases

Authors: BY TYLER DURDENWEDNESDAY, AUG 25, 2021 – 01:04 PM

A growing number of public health officials working at the state level are worried that the federal government isn’t collecting enough accurate data about “breakthrough” infections, yet the Biden Administration has pushed ahead with plans to dole out booster shots, as well as other COVID policies.

According to Politico, 49 states are now regularly sending CDC information on hospitalized breakthrough patients. But more than a dozen have told Politico that they do not have the capacity to match hospital admission data with patients’ immunization records, forcing states to rely on hospital administrators to report breakthrough infections.

The result is data that is often aggregated, inaccurate and missing critical details like which vaccine the consumer received . Instead, those states rely on hospital administrators to report breakthrough infections. The resulting data is often aggregated, inaccurate and omits critical details for teasing out trends, such as which vaccine a person received and whether they have been fully vaccinated, a dozen state officials said.

The fact that the CDC and public health departments across the country are still struggling to collect data on breakthrough infections is almost embarrassing, considering we’re more than 18 months into the pandemic at this point, and scientists have repeatedly warned about the necessity of being prepared for the Omega Death Variant which is right around the corner, according to Dr. Fauci’s latest fearmongering blitz.

“I think it would be really challenging [for the CDC] to interpret the results or to interpret the data when you have only some jurisdictions reporting [breakthrough infections],” said Theresa Sokol, lead epidemiologist for Louisiana’s state public health department, which is working closely with the CDC on studies of breakthrough infections. “I know that there are some jurisdictions that don’t even have access to their vaccination data. They don’t have the authority or their permission.”

Perhaps the biggest obstacle to collecting data on breakthrough infections is the balkanized nature of state health-care systems. States can’t communicate with other states. For years, states have pleaded with the federal government to upgrade these systems to no avail.

Last year, the CDC allocated a small amount of money (described by Politico as “tens of millions of dollars”) to help states upgrade their systems. But the CDC admits it will take years for the necessary upgrades to be made.

“Nothing has changed since the pandemic began,” one senior Biden health official said. “We’re still dealing with this patchwork system — and it continues to fail us.”

Of particular concern for health officials now is how rapidly the Delta variant spreads, whether it is reducing the effectiveness of vaccines and whether it causes more severe disease. Tracking breakthrough infections is a critical step toward arriving at all of these assessments.

To complement data on hospitalized cases from the 50-state reporting network, the CDC is conducting a smaller study with a subset of states to examine all of their breakthrough infections, including mild cases that don’t send people to the hospital. The states participating in this smaller study have the ability to match lab reports with immunization records, but they don’t maintain their own databases of hospitalization data. ;

“We report what we have, but we know that it’s limited because it’s based on a direct report from a provider — as opposed to taking a data set of all hospitalizations and matching that against our vaccine registry,” said Sokol, the Louisiana epidemiologist. “We’re not able to do that for hospitalization. We rely on individual reports from hospitals. And some report well, others do not. So we know that it’s not complete.”


“We don’t have a clear understanding of what the data actually says about the Delta variant, transmission and boosters,” one of those officials said.

To be sure, deliberately under-counting breakthrough infections has its advantages: for example, the Biden Administration can mask the number of breakthrough infections reported, making the vaccines appear more effective than they actually are.

The Epidemiology, Transmission, and Diagnosis of COVID-19

Authors: By: Neesha C. Siriwardane & Rodney Shackelford, DO, Ph.D. April 15, 2020

Introduction to COVID-19

Coronaviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family and order Nidovirales (1). The viruses are named for their “crown” of club-shaped S glycoprotein spikes, which surround the viruses and mediate viral attachment to host cell membranes (1-3). Coronaviruses are found in domestic and wild animals, and four coronaviruses commonly infect the human population, causing upper respiratory tract infections with mild common cold symptoms (1,4). Generally, animal coronaviruses do not spread within human populations, however rarely zoonotic coronaviruses evolve into strains that infect humans, often causing severe or fatal illnesses (4). Recently, three coronaviruses with zoonotic origins have entered the human population; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS) in 2003, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and most recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also termed SARS-CoV-2, which the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on January 31st, 2020 (4,5). 

COVID19 Biology, Spread, and Origin

COVID-19 replicates within epithelial cells, where the COVID-19 S glycoprotein attaches to the ACE2 receptor on type 2 pneumocytes and ciliated bronchial epithelial cells of the lungs. Following this, the virus enters the cells and rapidly uses host cell biochemical pathways to replicate viral proteins and RNA, which assemble into viruses that in turn infect other cells (3,5,6). Following these cycles of replication and re-infection, the infected cells show cytopathic changes, followed by various degrees of pulmonary inflammation, changes in cytokine expression, and disease symptoms (5-7). The ACE2 receptor also occurs throughout most of the gastrointestinal tract and a recent analysis of stool samples from COVID-19 patients revealed that up to 50% of those infected with the virus have a COVID-19 enteric infection (8).

COVID-19 was first identified on December 31st, 2020 in Wuhan China, when twenty-seven patients presented with pneumonia of unknown cause. Some of the patients worked in the Hunan seafood market, which sold both live and recently slaughtered wild animals (4,9).  Clusters of cases found in individuals in contact with the patients (family members and healthcare workers) indicated a human-to-human transmission pattern (9,10). Initial efforts to limit the spread of the virus were insufficient and the virus soon spread throughout China. Presently COVID-19 occurs in 175 countries, with 1,309,439 cases worldwide, with 72,638 deaths as of April 6th, 2020 (4). Presently, the most affected countries are the United States, Italy, Spain, and China, with the United States showing a rapid increase in cases, and as of April 6th, 2020 there are 351,890 COVID-19 infected, 10,377 dead, and 18,940 recovered (4).  In the US the first case presented on January 19th, 2020, when an otherwise healthy 35-year-old man presented to an urgent care clinic in Washington State with a four-day history of a persistent dry cough and a two-day history of nausea and vomiting.  The patient had a recent travel history to Wuhan, China. On January 20th, 2020 the patient tested positive for COVID-19.  The patient developed pneumonia and pulmonary infiltrates, and was treated with supplemental oxygen, vancomycin, and remdesivir. By day eight of hospitalization, the patient showed significant improvement (11). 

Sequence analyses of the COVID-19 genome revealed that it has a 96.2% similarity to a bat coronavirus collected in Yunnan province, China. These analyses furthermore showed no evidence that the virus is a laboratory construct (12-14). A recent sequence analysis also found that COVID-19 shows significant variations in its functional sites, and has evolved into two major types (termed L and S). The L type is more prevalent, is likely derived from the S type, and may be more aggressive and spread more easily (14,15). 


While sequence analyses strongly suggest an initial animal-to-human transmission, COVID-19 is now a human-to-human contact spread worldwide pandemic (4,9-11). Three main transmission routes are identified; 1) transmission by respiratory droplets, 2) contract transmission, and 3) aerosol transmission (16). Transmission by droplets occurs when respiratory droplets are expelled by an infected individual by coughing and are inhaled or ingested by individuals in relatively close proximity.  Contact transmission occurs when respiratory droplets or secretions are deposited on a surface and another individual picks up the virus by touching the surface and transfers it to their face (nose, mouth, or eyes), propagating the infection. The exact time that COVID-19 remains infective on contaminated surfaces is unknown, although it may be up to several days (4,16). Aerosol transmission occurs when respiratory droplets from an infected individual mix with air and initiate an infection when inhaled (16). Transmission by respiratory droplets appears to be the most common mechanism for new infections and even normal breathing and speech can transmit the virus (4,16,17). The observation that COVID-19 can cause enteric infections also suggests that it may be spread by oral-fecal transmission; however, this has not been verified (8). A recent study has also demonstrated that about 30% of COIVID-19 patients present with diarrhea, with 20% having diarrhea as their first symptom. These patients are more likely to have COVID-19 positive stool upon testing and a longer, but less severe disease course (18).  Recently possible COVID-19 transmission from mother to newborns (vertical transmission) has been documented. The significance of this in terms of newborn health and possible birth defects is currently unknown (19). 

The basic reproductive number or R0, measures the expected number of cases generated by one infection case within a population where all the individuals can become infected. Any number over 1.0 means that the infection can propagate throughout a susceptible population (4). For COVID-19, this value appears to be between 2.2 and 4.6 (4,20,21). Unpublished studies have stated that the COVID10 R0 value may be as high as 6.6, however, these studies are still in peer review. 

COVID-19 Prevention

There is no vaccine available to prevent COVID-19 infection, and thus prevention presently centers on limiting COVID-19 exposures as much as possible within the general population (22). Recommendations to reduce transmission within community include; 1) hand hygiene with simultaneous avoidance of touching the face, 2) respiratory hygiene, 3) utilizing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as facemasks, 4) disinfecting surfaces and objects that are frequently touched, and 5) limiting social contacts, especially with infected individuals  (4,9,17,22). Hand hygiene includes frequent hand-washing with soap and water for twenty seconds, especially after contact with respiratory secretions produced by activities such as coughing or sneezing. When soap and water are unavailable, hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol is recommended (4,17,22). PPE such as N95 respirators are routinely used by healthcare workers during droplet precaution protocols when caring for patients with respiratory illnesses. One retrospective study done in Hunan, China demonstrated N95 masks were extremely efficient at preventing COVID-19 transfer from infected patients to healthcare workers (4,22-24). It is also likely that wearing some form of mask protection is useful to prevent COVID19 spread and is now recommended by the CDC (25). 

Although transmission of COVID-19 is primarily through respiratory droplets, well-studied human coronaviruses such as HCoV, SARS, and MERS coronaviruses have been determined to remain infectious on inanimate surfaces at room temperature for up to nine days. They are less likely to persist for this amount of time at a temperature of 30°C or more (26). Therefore, contaminated surfaces can remain a potential source of transmission. The Environmental Protection Agency has produced a database of appropriate agents for COVID-19 disinfection (27). Limiting social contact usually has three levels; 1) isolating infected individuals from the non-infected, 2) isolating individuals who are likely to have been exposed to the disease from those not exposed, and 3) social distancing. The later includes community containment, were all individuals limit their social interactions by avoiding group gatherings, school closures, social distancing, workplace distancing, and staying at home (28,29). In an adapted influenza epidemic simulation model, comparing scenarios with no intervention to social distancing and estimated a reduction of the number of infections by 99.3% (28). In a similar study, social distancing was estimated to be able to reduce COVID-19 infections by 92% (29). Presently, these measured are being applied in many countries throughout the world and have been shown to be at least partially effective if given sufficient time (4,17,30). Such measures proved effective during the 2003 SARS outbreak in Singapore (30). 

Symptoms, Clinical Findings, and Mortality 

On average COVID-19 symptoms appear 5.2 days following exposure and death fourteen days later, with these time periods being shorter in individuals 70-years-old or older (31,32). People of any age can be infected with COVID-19, although infections are uncommon in children and most common between the ages of 30-65 years, with men more affected than women (32,33). The symptoms vary from asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic to respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and death (4,9,32,33). The most common symptoms include a dry cough which can become productive as the illness progresses (76%), fever (98%), myalgia/fatigue (44%), dyspnea (55%), and pneumoniae (81%), with less common symptoms being headache, diarrhea (26%), and lymphopenia (44%) (4,32,33). Rare events such as COVID-19 acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy have been documented and one paper describes conjunctivitis, including conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, or increased secretions in 30% of COVID-19 patients (34,35). Interestingly, about 30-60% of those infected with COVID-19 also experience a loss of their ability to taste and smell (36). 

The clinical features of COVID-19 include bilateral lung involvement showing patchy shadows or ground-glass opacities identified by chest X-ray or CT scanning (34). Patients can develop atypical pneumoniae with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (33). Additionally, elevations of aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase (41%), C-reactive protein (86%), serum ferritin (63%), and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, whose levels correlate positively with the severity of the symptoms (4,31-33,37-39).

About 81% of COVID-19 infections are mild and the patients make complete recoveries (38). Older patients and those with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a more difficult clinical course (31-33,37-39). In one study, 72% of patients requiring ICU treatment had some of these concurrent comorbidities (40). According to the WHO 14% of COVID-19 cases are severe and require hospitalization, 5% are very severe and will require ICU care and likely ventilation, and 4% will die (41). Severity will be increased by older age and comorbidities (4,40,41). If effective treatments and vaccines are not found, the pandemic may cause slightly less than one-half billion deaths, or 6% of the world’s population (41). Since many individuals infected with COVID-19 appear to show no symptoms, the actual mortality rate of COIVD-19 is likely much less than 4% (42). An accurate understanding of the typical clinical course and mortality rate of COVID-19 will require time and large scale testing.         

COVID-19 Diagnosis

COVID-19 symptoms are nonspecific and a definitive diagnosis requires laboratory testing, combined with a thorough patient history.  Two common molecular diagnostic methods for COVID-19 are real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high-throughput whole-genome sequencing.  RT-PCR is used more often as it is cost more effective, less complex, and has a short turnaround time. Blood and respiratory secretions are analyzed, with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid giving the best test results (43). Although the technique has worked on stool samples, as yet stool is less often tested (8,43). RT-PCR involves the isolation and purification of the COVID-19 RNA, followed by using an enzyme called “reverse transcriptase” to copy the viral RNA into DNA. The DNA is amplified through multiple rounds of PCR using viral nucleic acid-specific DNA primer sequences. Allowing in a short time the COVID-19 genome ti be amplified millions of times and then easily analyzed (43). RT-PCR COVID-19 testing is FDA approved and the testing volume in the US is rapidly increasing (44,45). The FDA has also recently approved a COVID-19 diagnostic test that detects anti-COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibodies in patient serum, plasma, or venipuncture whole blood (43). As anti-COVID-19 antibody formation takes time, so a negative result does not completely preclude a COVID-19 infection, especially early infections. Last, as COVID-19 often causes bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, correlating diagnostic testing results with lung chest CT or X-ray results can be helpful (4,31-33,37-39).  

Testing for COVID-19 is based on a high clinical suspicion and current recommendations suggest testing patients with a fever and/or acute respiratory illness. These recommendations are categorized into priority levels, with high priority individuals being hospitalized patients and symptomatic healthcare facility workers. Low priority individuals include those with mild disease, asymptomatic healthcare workers, and symptomatic essential infrastructure workers. The latter group will receive testing as resources become available (41,46,47). 

COVID-19 Possible Treatments

Presently research on possible COVIS-19 infection treatments and vaccines are underway (48). At the writing of this article many different drugs are being examined, however any data supporting the use of any specific drug treating COVID-19 is thin as best. A few drugs that might have promise are:  


Hydroxychloroquine has been used to treat malarial infections for seventy years and in cell cultures it has anti-viral effects against COVID-19 (49). In one small non-randomized clinical trial in France, twenty individuals infected with COVID-19 who received hydroxychloroquine showed a reduced COVID-19 viral load, as measured on nasopharyngeal viral carriage, compared to untreated controls (50). Six individuals who also received azithromycin with hydroxychloroquine had their viral load lessened further (50). In one small study in China, a similar drug (chloroquine) was superior in reducing COVID-19 viral levels in treated individuals compared to untreated control individuals (51).  These results are preliminary, but promising. 


Remdesivir is a drug that showed value in treating patients infected with SARS (52). COVID-19 and SARS show about 80% sequence similarity and since Remdesivir has been used to treat SARS, it might have value in treating COVID-19 (52). These trials are underway (48). Remdesivir was also used to treat the first case of COIVD-19 identified within the US (11). There are many other drugs being examined to treat COVID-19 infections, however, the data on all of them is presently slight to none, and research has only begun. There is an enormous research effort underway, and progress should be rapid (48). 


Our understanding of COVID-19 is changing extremely rapidly and new findings come out daily. Combating COVID-19 effectively will require multiple steps; including slowing the spread of the virus through socially isolating and measures such as hand washing. The development of effective drug treatments and vaccines is already a priority and rapid progress is being made (48). Additionally, many areas of the world, such as South American and sub-Saharan Africa, will be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and are likely to have their economies and healthcare systems put under extreme stress. Dealing with the healthcare crisis in these countries will be very difficult. Lastly, several recent viral pandemics (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) have come from areas where wildlife is regularly traded, butchered, and eaten in conditions that favor the spread of dangerous viruses between species, and eventually into human populations. The prevention of new viral pandemics will require improved handling of wild species, better separation of wild animals from domestic animals, and better regulated and lowered trade in wild animals, such as bats, which are known to be a risk for carrying potentially deadly viruses to human populations (53). 


  1. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2019;17:181-92. 
  2. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science 2020;367:1260-3.
  3. Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science 2020;367:1444-8. 
  4. CDC. 2019 Novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China. 2020. Accessed 6 April 2020. 
  5. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses.Nat Rev Microbiol 2016;14:523-34. 
  6. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7:439-50.
  7. The Novel Coronavirus: A Bird’s Eye View. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2020;11:65-71. 
  8. Evidence for Gastrointestinal Infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology 2020;S0016-5085:30282-1. 
  9. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-1207. 
  10. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating a person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514-23. 
  11. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States.N Engl J Med. 2020;382:929-36. 
  12. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020;579:270-3. 
  13. Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event. Infect Genet Evol. 2020;79:104212. 
  14. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med. 2020.
  15. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Natl Sci Review 2020. 
  16. National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China. Prevent guidelines of 2019-nCoV. 2020. Accessed 6 April 2020.
  17. Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center
  18. Digestive symptoms in CVOID-19 patients with mild disease severity: Clinical presentation, stool viral RNA testing, and outcomes. 
  19. Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr.  doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0878. 
  20. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-1207. 
  21. Data-based analysis, modelling and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One 2020;15:e0230405. 
  22. Covid-19 – Navigating the Uncharted. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1268-9. 
  23. Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;S2213-2600(20)30134-X. 
  24. Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use. J Hosp Infect. 2020i:S0195-6701(20)30097-9. 
  25. Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission.
  26. COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures. J Travel Med. 2020 Feb 28. 
  28. Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;S1473-3099(20)30162-6.
  29. The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet, Public Health
  30. SARS in Singapore–key lessons from an epidemic. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006;35:301-6. 
  31. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-207. 
  32. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol. 2020;92:441-7. 
  33. Clinical features of patents infected with novel 2019 coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.
  34. COVID-19-associated Acute Hemorrhagic Necrotizing Encephalopathy: CT and MRI Features. Radiology 2020:201187. 
  35. Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, ChinaJAMA Ophthalmol. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.1291. 
  36. A New Symptom of COVID-19: Loss of Taste and Smell. 38. Obesity. 2020. doi: 10.1002/oby.22809.
  37. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.
  38. Clinical course and mortality risk of severe COVID-19. Lancet 2020;395:507-13. 
  39. The cytokine release syndrome (CRS) of severe COVID-19 and Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antagonist Tocilizumab may be the key to reduce the mortality. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;28:105954. 
  40. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.  JAMA 2020; 323:1061-9. 
  41. Unknown unknowns – COVID-19 and potential global mortality. Early Hum Dev. 2020;144:105026. 
  42. Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Science 2020 Mar 16. pii: eabb3221.
  43. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCREuro Surveill. 2020;25. 44.
  45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluating and Testing Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  46. Infectious Diseases Society of America. COVID-19 Prioritization of Diagnostic Testing.
  47. Race to find COVID-19 treatments accelerates. Science  2020:367;1412-3.
  48. Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Cell Discov. 202018;6:16. 
  49. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020:105949. 
  50. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends 2020;14(1):72-73.
  51. Remdesivir for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing COVID-19: An evaluation of the evidence. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 2:101647.
  52. Permanently ban wildlife consumption.

Ophthalmic Manifestations Of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Authors: Katherine Hu; Jay Patel; Cole Swiston; Bhupendra C. Patel.Author Information Last Update: May 19, 2021.

Several reports of suspected ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prompted investigations into ocular signs, symptoms, and transmission. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ocular manifestations of COVID-19 and highlights the interprofessional team’s role in managing patients with this condition.


  • Summarize the epidemiology of ocular manifestations of COVID-19.
  • Describe the typical presentation of a patient with ocular manifestations of COVID-19.
  • Outline management considerations for patients with ocular manifestations of COVID-19, including key patient counseling on disease transmission prevention.
  • Explain the importance of collaboration and communication among the interprofessional team to improve outcomes for patients affected by COVID-19.


Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic caused by the highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[1] Initially, there were several reports of eye redness and irritation in COVID-19 patients, both anecdotal and published, suggesting that conjunctivitis is an ocular manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Reports continue to emerge on further associations of COVID-19 with uveitic, retinovascular, and neuro-ophthalmic disease.

During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, a study detected SARS-CoV in tear samples in SARS patients in Singapore.[2] Lack of eye protection was a primary risk factor of SARS-CoV transmission from SARS patients to healthcare workers in Toronto, prompting a concern that respiratory illness could be transmitted through ocular secretions.[3][4] Similar concerns have been raised with SARS-CoV-2, especially among eye care providers and those on the front lines triaging what could be initial symptoms of COVID-19.

As conjunctivitis is a common eye condition, ophthalmologists may be the first medical professionals to evaluate a patient with COVID-19. Indeed, one of the first providers to voice concerns regarding the spread of coronavirus in Chinese patients was Dr. Li Wenliang, MD, an ophthalmologist. He later died from COVID-19 and was believed to have contracted the virus from an asymptomatic glaucoma patient in his clinic.

The authors of this article have attempted to collect the most up-to-date information on ophthalmic manifestations of COVID-19 as a resource for identifying symptoms, providing diagnostic pearls, and mitigating transmission.


SARS-CoV-2 is a novel enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA beta coronavirus that causes COVID-19, originally linked to an outbreak in Wuhan of China’s Hubei province.[1] Direct contact with mucous membranes, including the eye, is a suspected route of transmission.

Coronaviruses can cause severe ocular disease in animals, including anterior uveitis, retinitis, vasculitis, and optic neuritis in feline and murine species. However, ocular manifestations in humans are typically mild and rare, [5] although there are increasing numbers of associated ocular findings in patients positive for the COVID-19. There are no described ocular manifestations of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) or SARS, though, as previously stated, SARS-CoV was isolated in ocular secretions.[2] Other coronaviruses have been found to cause viral conjunctivitis in humans.[6]


At the time of writing the initial article on April 4, 2020, there were 1,272,953 confirmed cases and 69,428 deaths due to COVID-19 worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with 79,332 new cases confirmed in the previous 24 hours. At the time, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had reported 337,278 cases and 9,637 deaths in the United States to that date. On April 16, 2021, just over a year since our initial review, the number of deaths worldwide has crossed the 3 million mark. The severity of the pandemic is emphasized by noting the rate of deaths: it took 8.5 months after the first fatality in China to mark the loss of the first 1 million lives, 3.5 months to reach 2 million, and 3 months for the loss to cross 3 million lives. 

As of May 17, 2021, there have been over 164 million confirmed cases globally (the real number is, of course, far in excess of this as the number does not include infected individuals who were not tested or asymptomatic cases) and 3,403,722 deaths. India, Iran, and Brazil are currently experiencing the highest number of infections in a 24 hour period ever with new viral strains being discovered in different parts of the world. The United States has had the most infections (33,745,500) and deaths (600,514), followed by India, Brazil, France, Turkey, Russia and the United Kingdom. Increasing infections are currently being seen in Canada, France, Germany, and other countries, necessitating further shutdowns. In the United States, there is an overall uptick in infections as restrictions are relaxed. 

Viral mutations leading to variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been found around the world: the B.1.525 in the United Kingdom and Nigeria in December 2020, the B.1.526in the United States in November 2020, the B.1.1.7 in the United Kingdom in early 202, the B.1.351 in South Africa in late 2020, and the Indian variant in April 2021. 

Early studies postulated that ocular manifestations of COVID-19 were rare overall. Only 9 (0.8%) out of 1,099 patients from 552 hospitals across 30 provinces in China were reported to have “conjunctival congestion” from December 2019 through January 2020.[7] More recent data, however, have supported a much higher incidence of ocular signs and symptoms. A 2021 meta-analysis by Nasiri et al. reported a pooled prevalence of all ocular manifestations among 7,300 COVID-19 patients as 11.03%, with the most frequent ocular disease being conjunctivitis (88.8%).[8] In the same meta-analysis, dry eye or foreign body sensation (16%), eye redness (13.3%), tearing (12.8%), and itching (12.6%) were among the most frequent symptoms reported. 

A case series reported ocular symptoms in 12 (31.6%) of 38 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Hubei province, China.[9] These 12 of 38 patients had conjunctival hyperemia (3 patients), chemosis (7 patients), epiphora (7 patients), or increased secretions (7 patients). Of note is that one patient who had epiphora presented with epiphora as the first symptom of COVID-19. Of those with ocular manifestations, 2 (16.7%) patients had positive results of SARS-CoV-2 on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by a conjunctival swab, as well as by nasopharyngeal swabs. Only one patient in this study presented with conjunctivitis as the first symptom.[9] The authors noted that patients with ocular symptoms had higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts, C-reactive protein, and higher levels of procalcitonin and lactate dehydrogenase compared to patients without ocular abnormalities. 

Out of 30 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 tested by Xia et al., one patient had conjunctivitis and was also the sole patient in the study to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 in ocular secretions by a conjunctival swab. This patient did not have a severe fever or respiratory symptoms at the time of testing.[10]

For More Information:

Neurologic Manifestations Associations of COVID-19

High-quality epidemiologic data is still urgently needed to better understand neurologic effects of COVID-19.

Authors: Shraddha Mainali, MD; and Marin Darsie, MD VIEW/PRINT PDF

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to prevail as a deadly pandemic and unparalleled global crisis. More than 74 million people have been infected globally, and over 1.6 million have died as of mid-December 2020. The virus transmits mainly through close contacts and respiratory droplets.1 Although the mean incubation period is 3 to 9 days (range, 0-24 days), transmission may occur prior to symptom onset, and about 18% of cases remain asymptomatic.2 The highest rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the US have been reported in adults age 18 to 29 and 50 to 64 years, representing 23.8% and 20.5% of cases, respectively.3 Although adults age 65 and older make up only 14.6% of total cases in the US, they account for the vast majority of deaths (79.9%).3 Similarly, men appear to be more vulnerable to the disease, accounting for 69% of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and 58% of deaths despite nearly equal disease prevalence between men and women.4 In terms of ethnicity, Black Americans account for 15.6% of COVID-19 infections and 19.7% of related deaths, whereas Hispanic/Latinx Americans account for 26.3% of COVID-19 infections and 15.7% of COVID-19 deaths, despite these groups comprising 13.4% and 16.7% of the US population, respectively.3,5

The most commonly reported symptoms are fever, dry cough, fatigue, dyspnea, and anorexia.2 Numerous studies have also reported a spectrum of neurologic dysfunctions, including mild symptoms (eg, headache, anosmia, and dysgeusia) to severe complications (eg, stroke and encephalitis). Despite the prolific reports of neurologic associations and complications of COVID-19 in the face of a raging pandemic with limited resources, there is a significant lack of control for important confounders including the severity of systemic disease, exacerbation or recrudescence of preexisting neurologic disease, iatrogenic complications, and hospital-acquired conditions. Moreover, given the ubiquity of the virus, it is challenging to parse COVID-19–related complications from coexisting conditions. There is an urgent need for high-quality epidemiologic data reflecting COVID-19 prevalence by age, sex, race, and ethnicity on a local, state, national, and international level.

Neurologic and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of COVID-19

Prevalence estimates of acute neurologic dysfunctions caused by COVID-19 are widely variable, with reports ranging from 3.5% to 36.4%.6 A recent study from Chicago showed that in those with COVID-19 who develop neurologic complications, 42% had neurologic complaints at disease onset, 63% had them during hospitalization, and 82% experienced them during the course of illness.7 Considering the widespread nature of the pandemic, with millions infected globally, neurologic complications of COVID-19 could lead to a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, and economic burden.

People over age 50 with comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) are prone to neurologic complications.2,8 Common nonspecific symptoms include headache, fatigue, malaise, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anorexia, and dizziness. COVID-19 is known characteristically to affect taste (dysgeusia) and smell (anosmia) in the absence of coryza with variable prevalence estimates ranging from 5% to 85%.9 Since the first report on hospitalized individuals in Wuhan, China, numerous other reports have indicated a spectrum of mild-to-severe neurologic complications, including cerebrovascular events, seizures, demyelinating disease, and encephalitis.8,10-13 As a result of fragmented data from across the world with diverse neurologic manifestations and multiple potential mechanisms of injury, the classification of neurologic dysfunctions in COVID-19 is complex and varies across the literature. Here we present 2 pragmatic classification approaches based on 1) type and site of neurologic manifestations disease categories.

For More Information:

The Impact of the Covid 19 Pandemic on Cerebrovascular Disease: CORD-Papers-2021-06-28


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a systemic disease that affects nearly all organ systems through infection and subsequent dysregulation of the vascular endothelium. One of the most striking phenomena has been a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)associated coagulopathy. Given these findings, questions naturally emerged about the prothrombotic impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and whether ischemic stroke is a clinical feature specific to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Early reports from China and several sites in the northeastern United States seemed to confirm these suspicions. Since these initial reports, many cohort studies worldwide observed decreased rates of stroke since the start of the pandemic, raising concerns for a broader impact of the pandemic on stroke treatment. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of how the pandemic has affected stroke presentation, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease. Much evidence suggests that this decline in stroke admissions stems from the global response to the virus, which has made it more difficult for patients to get to the hospital once symptoms start. However, there does not appear to be a demonstrable impact on quality metrics once patients arrive at the hospital. Despite initial concerns, there is insufficient evidence to ascribe a causal relationship specific to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 on the cerebral vasculature. Nevertheless, when patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 present with stroke, their presentation is likely to be more severe, and they have a markedly higher rate of in-hospital mortality than patients with either acute ischemic stroke or COVID-19 alone.

For More Information:

Comparative study of hospitalized children with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus

Authors: Xinghua LiuWei LiBo ZhangYan GuoZhao HuCao PengXiao LeiQunying LuoQiong hangWei DengJuanjuan WangJianqiao TangYunqiao Li & Jianying Chen BMC Infectious Diseases volume 21, Article number: 412 (2021) 



Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza. Here, we comparatively described the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 and pediatric patients with influenza.


In this retrospective, single-center study, we reviewed the electronic medical records of 585 pediatric patients with COVID-19 or influenza in Wuhan Children’s Hospital, China. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were comparatively analysed.


The median ages were 6.96 years (IQR, 2–10.81) for children with confirmed COVID-19, 2.67 years (IQR, 1.03–15.25) for those with influenza A and 3.67 years (IQR, 1.62–5.54) for those with influenza B. Fever was a symptom in 84 (34.7%) COVID-19 cases, 132 (70.21%) influenza A cases and 111 (74.50%) influenza B cases. The median length of stay (LOS) was 11 (8–15) days for paediatric COVID-19 patients, 4 (3–6) days for influenza A patients and 5 (3–6) days for influenza B patients. Twenty-six (13.98%) influenza A patients and 18 (12.59%) influenza B patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts, while 13 (5.33%) COVID-19 patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts. Eight (3.28%) COVID-19 patients, 23 (12.71%) influenza A patients and 21 (14.79%) influenza B patients experienced lymphocytopenia. Acute cardiac injury occurred in 18 (7.29%) COVID-19 patients, while 37 (19.68%) influenza A and 27 (18.12%) influenza B patients had acute cardiac injury.


In this study, the illnesses of children with COVID-19 were demonstrated to be less severe than those of pediatric patients with influenza, and COVID-19 patients had milder illness and fewer complications.

For More Information:

COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review

Authors: COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review Koichi Yuki, Miho Fujiogi, and Sophia Koutsogiannaki


In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, now named as SARS-CoV-2, caused a series of acute atypical respiratory diseases in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The disease caused by this virus was termed COVID-19. The virus is transmittable between humans and has caused pandemic worldwide. The number of death tolls continues to rise and a large number of countries have been forced to do social distancing and lockdown. Lack of targeted therapy continues to be a problem. Epidemiological studies showed that elder patients were more susceptible to severe diseases, while children tend to have milder symptoms. Here we reviewed the current knowledge about this disease and considered the potential explanation of the different symptomatology between children and adults.

1. Introduction

In December 2019, a series of acute atypical respiratory disease occurred in Wuhan, China. This rapidly spread from Wuhan to other areas. It was soon discovered that a novel coronavirus was responsible. The novel coronavirus was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV) due to its high homology (~80%) to SARS-CoV, which caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high mortality during 2002–2003 [1]. The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was considered to have originally started via a zoonotic transmission associated with the seafood market in Wuhan, China. Later it was recognized that human to human transmission played a major role in the subsequent outbreak [2]. The disease caused by this virus was called Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and a pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 has been impacting a large number of people worldwide, being reported in approximately 200 countries and territories [3,4]. As of April 7th, 2020, around 1,400,000 cases worldwide have been reported according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at John Hopkins University [5].

SARS-CoV-2 virus primarily affects the respiratory system, although other organ systems are also involved. Lower respiratory tract infection related symptoms including fever, dry cough and dyspnea were reported in the initial case series from Wuhan, China [6]. In addition, headache, dizziness, generalized weakness, vomiting and diarrhea were observed [7]. It is now widely recognized that respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 are extremely heterogeneous, ranging from minimal symptoms to significant hypoxia with ARDS. In the report from Wuhan mentioned above, the time between the onset of symptoms and the development of ARDS was as short as 9 days, suggesting that the respiratory symptoms could progress rapidly [6]. This disease could be also fatal. A growing number of patients with severe diseases have continued to succumb worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that mortalities are higher in elder population [8] and the incidence is much lower in children [9,10]. Current medical management is largely supportive with no targeted therapy available. Several drugs including lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin have been tested in clinical trials [8,11,12], but none of them have been proven to be a definite therapy yet. More therapies are being tested in clinical trials. A large number of countries have implemented social distancing and lockdown to mitigate further spread of the virus. Here we will review our current knowledge of COVID-19 and consider the underlying mechanism to explain the heterogeneous symptomatology, particularly focusing on the difference between children and adult patients.

For More Information:

CDC says 7-day average of daily U.S. Covid cases surpassed peak seen last summer


  • The seven-day average of daily coronavirus cases in the U.S. surpassed the peak seen last summer when the nation didn’t have an authorized vaccine, CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky said.
  • U.S. Covid cases, based on a seven-day moving average, reached 72,790 on Friday, according to data compiled by the CDC.
  • That’s higher than the peak in average daily cases seen last summer, when the country was reporting about 68,700 new cases per day, according to the CDC.

For More Information: