A Case Report: Multifocal Necrotizing Encephalitis and Myocarditis after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination againstCOVID-19

Authors: Michael Mörz


The current report presents the case of a 76-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease (PD)who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination. The patient was first vac-cinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine, followed by two doses of theBNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested anautopsy due to ambiguous clinical signs before death. PD was confirmed by post-mortem exami-nations. Furthermore, signs of aspiration pneumonia and systemic arteriosclerosis were evident. However, histopathological analyses of the brain uncovered previously unsuspected findings, including acute vasculitis (predominantly lymphocytic) as well as multifocal necrotizing encephalitis of unknown etiology with pronounced inflammation including glial and lymphocytic reaction. In the heart, signs of chronic cardiomyopathy as well as mild acute lympho-histiocytic myocarditis and vasculitis were present. Although there was no history of COVID-19 for this patient, immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike and nucleocapsid proteins) was performed. Surprisingly, only spike protein but no nucleocapsid protein could be detected within the foci of inflammation in both the brain and the heart, particularly in the endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Since no nucleocapsid protein could be detected, the presence of spike protein must be ascribed to vaccination rather than to viral infection. The findings corroborate previous reports of encephalitis and myocarditis caused by gene-based COVID-19 vaccines.

1. Introduction

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 with the subsequent worldwide spread of COVID-19 gave rise to a perceived need for halting the progress of the COVID-19 pandemic through the rapid development and deployment of vaccines. Recent advances in genomics facilitated gene-based strategies for creating these novel vaccines, including DNA-based nonreplicating viral vectors, and mRNA-based vaccines, which were furthermore developed on an aggressively shortened timeline [1–4].The WHO Emergency Use Listing Procedure (EUL), which determines the acceptability of medicinal products based on evidence of quality, safety, efficacy, and performance[5], permitted these vaccines to be marketed as soon as 1–2 years after development had begun. Published results of the phase 3 clinical trials described only a few severe side effects [2,6–8]. However, it has since become clear that severe and even fatal adverse events may occur; these include in particular cardiovascular and neurological manifestations [9–13]. Clinicians should take note of such case reports for the sake of early detection and management of such adverse events among their patients. In addition , a thorough post-mortem examination of deaths in connection with COVID-19 vaccination should be considered in ambiguous circumstances, including histology. This report presents the case of a senior aged 76 years old, who had received three doses overall of two different COVID-19 vaccines, and who died three weeks after the second dose of the mRNA-BNT162b-vaccine. Autopsy and histology revealed unexpected necrotizing encephalitis and mild myocarditis with pathological changes in small blood vessels. A causal connection of these findings to the preceding COVID-19 vaccination was established by immunohistochemical demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The methodology introduced in this study should be useful for distinguishing between causation by COVID-19 vaccination or infection in ambiguous cases.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Routine Histology

Formalin-fixed tissues were routinely processsed and paraffin-embedded tissueswere cut into 5μm sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histo-pathological examination.

2.2. Immunohistochemistry

 Immunohistochemical staining was performed on the heart and brain, using a fullyautomated immunostaining system (Ventana Benchmark, Roche). An antigen retrieval(Ultra CC1, Roche Ventana) was used for every antibody. The target antigens and dilution factors for the antibodies used are summarized in Table 1. Incubation with the primary antibody was carried out for 30 min in each case. Tissues fromSARS-CoV-2-positive COVID-19 patients were used as a control for the antibodies against SARS-CoV-2-spike and nucleocapsid (Figure 1). Cultured cells that had been transfected in vitro (see hereafter) served as a positive control for the detection of vaccine-induced spike protein expression and as a negative control for the detection of nucleocapsid protein. The slides were examined with a light microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE80i) and representative images were captured by the camera system Motic MP3.

Table 1.

Primary antibodies used for immunohistochemistry. Tissue sections were incubated 30min with the antibody in question, diluted as stated in the table.

Target Antigen Manufacturer Clone Dilution Incubation Time

CD3 (expressed by T-Lymphocytes) cytomed ZM-45 1:200 30 minCD68 (expressed by monocytic cells) DAKO PG-M1 1:100 30 minSARS-CoV-2-Spike subunit 1 ProSci 9083 1:500 30 minSARS-CoV-2-Nucleocapsid ProSci 35–720 1:500 30 min

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Figure 1.

Nasal smear from a person with acute symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infection (confirmed byPCR). Note the presence of ciliated epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for two SARS-CoV-2antigens (spike and nucleocapsid protein) revealed a positive reaction for both as to be expectedafter infection. (a) Detection of the spike protein. Positive control for spike subunit 1 SARS-CoV-2protein detection. Several ciliated epithelia of the nasal mucosa show brownish granular deposits of DAB (red arrow). Compared to nucleocapsid, the DAB-granules are fewer and less densely packed granular deposits of DAB. (b) Detection of nucleocapsid protein. Positive control for nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 protein detection. Several ciliated epithelia of the nasal mucosa show dense brownish granular deposits of DAB in immunohistochemistry (examples red arrows).Compared to spike detection, the granules of DAB are finer and more densely packed.Magnification: 400x.

2.3. Preparation of Positive Control Samples for the Immunohistochemical Detection of theVaccine-Induced Spike Protein

Cell culture and transfection: Ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and SK-OV3, CSL cell Lines Service, Heidelberg, Germany) were grown to 70% confluence in flat bottom 75cm2

 cell culture flasks (Cell star) in DMEM/HAMS-F12 medium supplemented with Glutamax (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), 10% FCS (Gibco, Shanghai, China) and Gentamycin (final concentration 20 μg/mL, Gibco), at 37 °C, 5% CO2

 in a humidified cell incubator. For transfection, the medium was completely removed, and cells were incubated for 1 h with 2 mL of fresh medium containing the injection solutions directly from the original bottles, diluted 1:500 in the case of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/Biotech), and 1:100in cases of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), and Jansen (COVID-19vaccine Jansen). Then, another 15 mL of fresh medium was added to the cell cultures and cells were grown to confluence for another 3 days. Preparation of tissue blocks from transfected cells: The cell culture medium was removed from transfected cells, and the monolayer was washed twice with PBS, then trypsinized by adding 1 mL of 0.25% Trypsin-EDTA (Gibco), harvested with 10 mL of PBS/10% FCS, and washed 2× with PBS and centrifugation at 280×g  for 10 min each. Cell pellets were fixed overnight in 2 mL in PBS/4% Formalin at 8 °C and then washed in PBmm Sonce. The cell pellets remaining after centrifugation were suspended in 200 μ

L PBS each,mixed with 400


L 2% agarose in PBS solution (precooled to around 40 °C), and immediately transferred to small (1 cm) dishes for fixation. The fixed and agarose-embedded cell pellets were stored in 4% Formalin/PBS till subjection to routine paraffin embedding in parallel to tissue samples.

2.4. Case Presentation and Description

2.4.1. Clinical History This report presents the case of a 76-year-old male with a history of Parkinson’s disease (PD) who passed away three weeks after his third COVID-19 vaccination. On the day of his first vaccination in May 2021 (ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine), he experienced pronounced cardiovascular side effects, for which he repeatedly had to consult his doctor. After the second vaccination in July 2021 (BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine/Comirnaty), the family noted obvious behavioral and psychological changes(e.g., he did not want to be touched anymore and experienced increased anxiety, lethargy, and social withdrawal even from close family members). Furthermore, therewas a striking worsening of his PD symptoms, which led to severe motor impairment and a recurrent need for wheelchair support. He never fully recovered from these side effects after the first two vaccinations but still got another vaccination in December 2021.Two weeks after the third vaccination (second vaccination with BNT162b2), he suddenly collapsed while taking his dinner. Remarkably, he did not show coughing or any signs of food aspiration but just fell down silently. He recovered from this more or less, but one week later, he again suddenly collapsed silently while taking his meal. The emergency unit was called, and after successful, but prolonged resuscitation attempts

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(over one hour), he was transferred to the hospital and directly put into an artificial co-ma but died shortly thereafter. The clinical diagnosis was death due to aspirationpneumonia. According to his family, there was no history of a clinical or laboratorydiagnosis of COVID-19 in the past.2.4.2. AutopsyThe autopsy was requested and consented to by the family of the patient because ofthe ambiguity of symptoms before his death. The autopsy was performed according tostandard procedures including macroscopic and microscopic investigation. Gross braintissue was prepared for histological examination including the brain (frontal cortex,Substantia nigra, and Nucleus ruber) as well as the heart (left and right ventricular car-diac tissue).

3. Results

3.1. Autopsy Findings

Anatomical Specifications: Body weight, height, and specifications of body organswere summarized in Table 2

Table 2.

Anatomical Specifications.

Item Measure Body weight 60 kg Hight 175 cmHeart weight 410 g Brain weight 1560 gL iver weight 1500 

Brain: A macroscopic examination of brain tissue revealed a circumscribed seg-mental cerebral parenchymal necrosis at the site of the right hippocampus. Substantianigra showed a loss of pigmented neurons. Microscopically, several areas with lacunarnecrosis were detected with inflammatory debris reaction on the left frontal side (Figure2). Staining of Nucleus ruber with H&E showed neuronal cell death, microglia, and lymphocyte infiltration (Figure 3). Furthermore, there were microglial and lymphocytic reactions as well as predominantly lymphocytic vasculitis, sometimes with mixed infiltrates including neutrophilic granulocytes (Figure 4) in the frontal cortex, para ventricu-lar, Substantia nigra, and Nucleus ruber on both sides. In some places with inflammatory changes in brain capillaries, there were also signs of apoptotic cell death within the endothelium (Figure 4). Meninges’ findings were unremarkable. The collective findings were suggestive of multifocal necrotizing encephalitis. Furthermore, chronic arterio-sclerotic lesions of varying degrees were noted in large brain vessels, which are described in detail in section “Vascular system”. Parkinson’s disease (PD): Macroscopic and histological examination of brain tissue revealed bilateral pallor of the substantia nigra with loss of pigmented neurons. In addition, pigment-storing macrophages as well as scattered neuronal necrosis with glial de bris reaction were noted. These findings were suggestive of PD, confirming the clinical diagnosis. Thoracic cavity: An examination of the chest showed a funnel-shaped chest with serial rib fractures (extending from the second to fifth ribs on the right, and from the second to sixth ribs on the left); which is a common picture of a patient who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An endotracheal tube was properly inserted. There was evidence of regular placement of a central venous catheter in the left femoral vein. There was evidence of regular placement of an arterial catheter in the left radial artery. The

urinary catheter was inserted as well. There was a 9 cm long skin scar on the front of theright shoulder.

Lungs: Macroscopical lung examination revealed cloudy secretion and purulentspots with notably brittle parenchyma. The pleura showed bilateral serous effusion,amounting to 450 mL of fluid on the right side and 400 mL on the left side. Bilateralmucopurulent tracheobronchitis was evident with copious purulent secretion in the tra-chea and bronchi. Bilateral chronic destructive pulmonary emphysema was detected.Bilateral bronchopneumonia was noted in the lower lung lobes at multiple stages of de-velopment and lobe-filling with secretions and fragile parenchyma. Furthermore, chronicarteriosclerotic lesions of varying degrees were noted, which are described in detail in thesection “Vascular system”.Heart: Macroscopic cardiac examination revealed manifestations of acute andchronic cardiovascular insufficiency, including ectasia of the atria and ventricles. Fur-thermore, left ventricular hypertrophy was noted (wall thickness: 18 mm, heart weight:410 g, body weight: 60 kg, height: 1.75 m). There was evidence of tissue congestion(presumably due to cardiac insufficiency) in the form of pulmonary edema, cerebraledema, brain congestion, chronic hepatic congestion, renal tissue edema, and pituitarytissue edema. Moreover, there was evidence of shock kidney disorder. Histological ex-amination of the heart revealed mild myocarditis with fine-spotted fibrosis and lym-pho-histiocytic infiltration (Figure 5). Furthermore, there were chronic arterioscleroticlesions of varying degrees, which are described in detail under “Vascular system”. Inaddition to these, there were more acute myocardial and vascular changes in the heart.They consisted of mild signs of myocarditis, characterized by infiltrations with foamyhistiocytes and lymphocytes as well as hypereosinophilia and some hypercontraction ofcardiomyocytes. Furthermore, mild acute vascular changes were observed in the capil-laries and other small blood vessels of the heart. They consisted of mild lym-pho-histiocytic infiltrates, prominent endothelial swelling and vacuolation, multifocalmyocytic degeneration and coagulation necrosis as well as karyopyknosis of single en-dothelial cells and vascular muscle cells (Figure 5). Occasionally, adhering plasma coag-ulates/fibrin clots were present on the endothelial surface, indicative of endothelialdamage (Figure 5).Vascular system (large blood vessels): The pulmonary arteries showed ectasia andlipidosis. The kidney showed slight diffuse glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis withrenal cortical scars (up to 10 mm in diameter). The findings are suggestive of generalizedatherosclerosis and systemic hypertension. Major arteries including the aorta and its branches as well as the coronary arteries showed variable degrees of arteriosclerosis andmild to moderate stenosis. Furthermore, examination revealed mild nodular arterioscle-rosis of cervical arteries. Ascending aorta, aortic arch, and thoracic aorta showed mod-erate, nodular, and partially calcified arteriosclerosis. The cerebral basilar artery showedmild arteriosclerosis. Nodular and calcified arteriosclerosis were of high grade in theabdominal aorta and iliac arteries and moderate grade with moderate stenosis in theright coronary arteries. Coronary artery examination showed variable degrees of arteri-osclerosis and stenosis more on the left coronary arteries. The left anterior descendingcoronary artery (the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery; LAD)showed high-grade and moderately stenosed arteriosclerosis. The arteriosclerosis andstenosis of the left circumflex artery (the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery)were mild.

Mild cerebral basal artery sclerosis. High-grade nodular and calcified arteriosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. Moderate stenosed arteriosclerosis of the right coronary artery. Lymphocytic periarteritis was detected as well

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Figure 2.

Frontal brain. Already in the overview image (

a), prominent vacuolations with increased parenchymal cellularity are evident, indicative of degenerative and inflammatory processes. At higher magnification (b acute brain damage is visible with diffuse and zonal neuronal and glial cell death, activation of microglia, and inflammatory infiltration by granulocytes and lymphocytes.1: neuronal deaths (cells with red cytoplasm); 2: microglial proliferation; 3: lymphocytes. H&Estain. Magnification 40× ) and 200× (b).

Figure 3.

Brain, Nucleus ruber. In the overview image (a0 note pronounced focal necrosis with increased cellularity, indicative of ongoing inflammation and glial reaction. At higher magnification (b, death of neuronal cells is evident and associated with an increased number of glial cells. Note activation of microglia and presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates, predominantly lymphocytic. 1: neuronal death with hypereosinophilia and destruction of cell nucleus with signs of karyolysis (nuclear content being distributed into the cytoplasm 2: microglia (example); 3:lymphocyte (example). H&E stain. Magnification 40× ( and 400× (b).





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Figure 5.

Heart left ventricle. (


): Mild lympho-histiocytic myocarditis.Pronounced interstitialedema (7) and mild lympho-histiocytic infiltrates (2 + 4). Signs of cardiomyocytic degeneration (5)with cytoplasmic hypereosinophilia and single contraction bands. (


): Arteriole with signs of acutedegeneration and associated inflammation, associated by lymphocytic infiltrates (2) within thevascular wall, endothelial swelling and vacuolation (3), and vacuolation of vascular myocytes withsigns of karyopyknosis (1). Within the vascular lumen (


), note plasma coagulation/fibrin clotsadhering to the endothelial surface, indicative of endothelial damage. 1: pyknotic vascular myo-cytes, 2: lymphocytes, 3: swollen endothelial cells, 4: macrophages, 5: necrotic cardiomyocytes, 6:eosinophilic granulocytes, 7 (blue line): interstitial edema. H&E stain. Magnification: 200x (a) and(c), 40×(b), and detailed enlargement (d).

.2. Other Findings

Oral cavity: tongue bite was detected with bleeding under the tongue muscle(tongue bite is common with epileptic seizures).-

Adrenal glands: bilateral mild cortical hyperplasia.-

Colon: the elongated sigmoid colon was elongated with fecal impaction.-

Kidneys: slight diffuse glomerulosclerosis and arterio-sclerosis, renal corticalscars (up to 10 mm in diameter), bilateral mild active nephritis and urocystitis aswell as evidence of shock kidney disorder.-

Liver: slight lipofuscinosis.-

Spleen: mild acute splenitis.-

Stomach: mild diffuse gastric mucosal bleeding.-

Thyroid gland: bilateral nodular goiter with chocolate cysts (up to 0.5 cm indiameter).-

Prostate gland: benign nodular prostatic hyperplasia and chronic persistentprostatitis.

3.3. Immunohistochemical Analyses

Immunohistochemical staining for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike protein and nucleocapsid) was studied in the brain and heart. In the brain, SARS-CoV-2spike protein subunit 1 was detected in the endothelia, microglia, and astrocytes in thenecrotic areas (Figures 6 and 7). Furthermore, spike protein could be demonstrated in theareas of lymphocytic periarteritis, present in the thoracic and abdominal aorta and iliac branches, as well as a cerebral basal artery (Figure 8). The SARS-CoV-2 subunit 1 was found in macrophages and in the cells of the vessel wall, in particular the endothelium(Figure 9), as well as in the Nucleus ruber (Figure 10). In contrast, the nucleocapsid pro-tein of SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected in any of the corresponding tissue sections(Figures 11 and 12). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunit 1 was detected in the cardiac endothelial cells that showed lymphocytic myocarditis (Figure 13). Immuno-histochemical staining did not detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (Figure 14)

3.4. Autopsy-Based Diagnosis

The 76-year-old deceased male patient had PD, which corresponded to typicalpost-mortem findings. The main cause of death was recurrent aspiration pneumonia. Inaddition, necrotizing encephalitis and vasculitis were considered to be major contribu-tors to death. Furthermore, there was mild lympho-histiocytic myocarditis with fi-ne-spotted myocardial fibrosis as well as systemic arteriosclerosis, which will have alsocontributed to the deterioration of the physical condition of the senior.The final diagnosis was abscedating bilateral bronchopneumonia (J18.9), Parkin-son’s disease (G20.9), necrotic encephalitis (G04.9), and myocarditis (I40.9).Immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike protein and nucleocapsid)revealed that the lesions with necrotizing encephalitis as well as the acute inflammatorychanges in the small blood vessels (brain and heart) were associated with abundant de-posits of the spike protein SARS-CoV-2 subunit 1. Since the nucleocapsid protein ofSARS-CoV-2 was consistently absent, it must be assumed that the presence of spike pro-tein in affected tissues was not due to an infection with SARS-CoV-2 but rather to thetransfection of the tissues by the gene-based COVID-19-vaccines. Importantly, spikeprotein could be only demonstrated in the areas with acute inflammatory reactions(brain, heart, and small blood vessels), in particular in endothelial cells, microglia, andastrocytes. This is strongly suggestive that the spike protein may have played at least acontributing role to the development of the lesions and the course of the disease in thispatient.

4. Discussion

This is a case report of a 76-year-old patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who diedthree weeks after his third COVID-19 vaccination. The stated cause of death appeared to be a recurrent attack of aspiration pneumonia, which is indeed common in PD [14,15].However, the detailed autopsy study revealed additional pathology, in particular necrotizing encephalitis and myocarditis. While the histopathological signs of myocarditis were comparatively mild, the encephalitis had resulted in significant multifocal necrosis and may well have contributed to the fatal outcome. Encephalitis often causes epileptic seizures, and the tongue bite found at the autopsy suggests that it had done so in this case. Several other cases of COVID-19 vaccine-associated encephalitis with status epilepticus have appeared previously [16–18].The clinical history of the current case showed some remarkable events in correlation to his COVID-19 vaccinations. Already on the day of his first vaccination in May2021 (ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine), he experienced cardiovascular symptoms, which needed medical care and from which he recovered only slowly. After the second vaccination in July 2021 (BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine), the family recognized remarkable behavioral and psychological changes and a sudden onset of marked progression of hisPD symptoms, which led to severe motor impairment and recurrent need for wheel chairs upport. He never fully recovered from this but still was again vaccinated in December2021. Two weeks after this third vaccination (second vaccination with BNT162b2), he suddenly collapsed while taking his dinner. Remarkably, he did not show any coughing or other signs of food aspiration but just fell from his chair. This raises the question of whether this sudden collapse was really due to aspiration pneumonia. After intense resuscitation, he recovered from this more or less, but one week later, he again suddenlycollapsed silently while taking his meal. After successful but prolonged resuscitation at-tempts, he was transferred to the hospital and directly set into an artificial coma but died shortly thereafter. The clinical diagnosis was death due to aspiration pneumonia. Due to his ambiguous symptoms after the COVID-vaccinations the family asked for an autopsy. Based on the alteration pattern in the brain and heart, it appeared that the small blood  vessels were especially affected, in particular, the endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be highly involved in organ dysfunction during viral infections, as it induces a pro-coagulant state, microvascular leak, and organ ischemia [19,20]. This is also the case for severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, where a systemic exposure to the virus and its spike protein elicits a strong immunological reaction in which the endothelial cells play a crucial role, leading to vascular dysfunction, immune-thrombosis, and inflammation [21].Although there was no history of COVID-19 for this patient, immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike and nucleocapsid proteins) was performed. Spike pro-tein could be indeed demonstrated in the areas of acute inflammation in the brain (par-ticularly within the capillary endothelium) and the small blood vessels of the heart. Re-markably, however, the nucleocapsid was uniformly absent. During an infection with thevirus, both proteins should be expressed and detected together. On the other hand, thegene-based COVID-19 vaccines encode only the spike protein and therefore, the presenceof spike protein only (but no nucleocapsid protein) in the heart and brain of the currentcase can be attributed to vaccination rather than to infection. This agrees with the pa-tient’s history, which includes three vaccine injections, the third one just 3 weeks beforehis death, but no positive laboratory or clinical diagnosis of the infection.Discrimination of vaccination response from natural infection is an important ques-tion and had been addressed already in clinical immunology, where the combined ap-plication of anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid protein-based serology was proven as auseful tool [22]. In histology, however, this immunohistochemical approach has not yet been described, but it is straightforward and appears to be very useful for identifying thepotential origin of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in autopsy or biopsy samples. Where addi-tional confirmation is required, for instance in a forensic context, rt-PCR methods might be used to ascertain the presence of the vaccine mRNA in the affected tissues [23,24].Assuming that, in the current case, the presence of spike protein was indeed driven by the gene-based vaccine, then the question arises whether this was also the cause the accompanying acute tissue alterations and inflammation. The stated purpose of the gene-based vaccines is to induce an immune response against the spike protein. Such an immune response will, however, not only results in antibody formation against the spike protein but also lead to direct cell- and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against the cells expressing this foreign antigen. In addition, there are indications that the spike protein on its own can elicit distinct toxicity, in particular, on pericytes and endothelial cells of blood vessels [25,26]

While it is widely held that spike protein expression, and the ensuing cell and tissuedamage will be limited to the injection site, several studies have found the vaccinemRNA and/or the spike protein encoded by it at a considerable distance from the injec-tion site for up to three months after the injection [23,24,27–29]. Biodistribution studies inrats with the mRNA-COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 also showed that the vaccine does notstay at the injection site but is distributed to all tissues and organs, including the brain[30]. After the worldwide roll-out of COVID-19 vaccinations in humans, spike proteinhas been detected in humans as well in several tissues distant from the injection site(deltoid muscle): for instance in heart muscle biopsies from myocarditis patients [28],within the skeletal muscle of a patient with myositis [23] and within the skin, where itwas associated with a sudden onset of Herpes zoster lesions after mRNA-COVID-19vaccination [29].The underlying diagnosis in this patient was Parkinson’s disease, and one may askwhat role, if any, this condition had played in the causation of the encephalitis, and themyocarditis detected at post-mortem examination. PD had been long-standing in thecurrent case, whereas the encephalitis was acute. Conversely, there is no plausiblemechanism and no case report of PD causing secondary necrotizing encephalitis. On theother hand, numerous cases have been reported of autoimmune encephalitis and en-cephalomyelitis after COVID-19 vaccination [12,31]. Autoimmune diseases in organsother than the CNS have been reported as well, for example, a striking case of a patientwho after mRNA vaccination suffered multiple autoimmune disorders all at once—acutedisseminated encephalomyelitis, myasthenia gravis, and thyroiditis [32]. In the case re-ported here, it may be noted that the spike protein was primarily detected in the vascularendothelium and sparsely in the glial cells but not in the neurons. Nevertheless, neuronalcell death was widespread in the encephalitic foci, which suggests some contribution ofimmunological bystander activation, i.e., autoimmunity, to the observed cell and tissuedamage.A contributory role of PD in the development of cardiomyopathy is indeed docu-mented and cannot be ruled out with absolute certainty. However, inflammatory myo-cardial changes with pathological alterations in small blood vessels as seen in the currentcase are uncommon. Instead, the most prominent cause of cardiac failure in PD patientsis rather due to cardiac autonomic dysfunction [33,34]. PD seems well to be significantlyassociated with increased left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction [34]. Inthe current case, ventricular dilatation and hypertrophy were present but seem ratherrelated to manifest signs of chronic hypertension. In contrast, myocardial inflammatoryreactions had been well-linked to gene-based COVID-19 vaccinations in numerous cases[9,35–37]. In one case, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 could also be demonstrated byimmunohistochemistry in the heart of vaccinated individuals [28].

5. Conclusions

Numerous cases of encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have been reported in con-nection with the gene-based COVID-19 vaccines, with many being considered causally related to vaccination [31,38,39]. However, this is the first report to demonstrate the presence of the spike protein within the encephalitic lesions and to attribute it to vac-cination rather than infection. These findings corroborate a causative role of thegene-based COVID-19 vaccines, and this diagnostic approach is relevant to potentially vaccine-induced damage to other organs as well


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New research provides insight into Long COVID and ME

Authors: University of Otago July 12, 2022: Science Daily

Summary: Researchers have uncovered how post-viral fatigue syndromes, including Long COVID, become life-changing diseases and why patients suffer frequent relapses.

Arising commonly from a viral infection, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), is known to cause brain-centred symptoms of neuroinflammation, loss of homeostasis, brain fog, lack of refreshing sleep, and poor response to even small stresses.

Long-COVID has similar effects on people and is believed to also be caused by neuroinflammation.

Lead author Emeritus Professor Warren Tate, of the University of Otago’s Department of Biochemistry, says how these debilitating brain effects develop is poorly understood.

In a study published in Frontiers in Neurology, he and colleagues from Otago, Victoria University of Wellington and University of Technology Sydney, developed a unifying model to explain how the brain-centred symptoms of these diseases are sustained through a brain-body connection.

They propose that, following an initial viral infection or stressor event, the subsequent systemic pathology moves to the brain vianeurovascular pathways or through a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier. This results in chronic neuroinflammation, leading to a sustained illness with chronic relapse recovery cycles.

The model proposes healing does not occur because a signal continuously cycles from the brain to the body, causing the patient to relapse.

The creation of this model is not only important for the “huge research effort ahead,” but also to provide recognition for ME/CFS and Long COVID sufferers.

“These diseases are very closely related, and it is clear the biological basis of Long COVID is unequivocally connected to the original COVID infection — so there should no longer be any debate and doubt about the fact that post viral fatigue syndromes like ME/CFS are biologically based and involve much disturbed physiology,” Emeritus Professor Tate says.

This work will enable best evidence-based knowledge of these illnesses, and best management practices, to be developed for medical professionals.

“Patients need appropriate affirmation of their biological-based illness and help to mitigate the distressing symptoms of these very difficult life-changing syndromes which are difficult for the patients to manage by themselves.

“This work highlighted that there is a susceptible subset of people who develop such syndromes when exposed to a severe stress, like infection with COVID-19, or the glandular fever virus Epstein Barr, or in some people with vaccination that is interpreted as a severe stress.

“What should be a transient inflammatory/immune response in the body to clear the infection, develop immunity and manage the physiological stress, becomes chronic, and so the disease persists.”

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Materials provided by University of OtagoNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Warren Tate, Max Walker, Eiren Sweetman, Amber Helliwell, Katie Peppercorn, Christina Edgar, Anna Blair, Aniruddha Chatterjee. Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation in ME/CFS and Long COVID to Sustain Disease and Promote RelapsesFrontiers in Neurology, 2022; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2022.877772

Long COVID or Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC): An Overview of Biological Factors That May Contribute to Persistent Symptoms

Authors: Amy D. Proal1 and Michael B. VanElzakker1,2*

The novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Across the globe, a subset of patients who sustain an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection are developing a wide range of persistent symptoms that do not resolve over the course of many months. These patients are being given the diagnosis Long COVID or Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). It is likely that individual patients with a PASC diagnosis have different underlying biological factors driving their symptoms, none of which are mutually exclusive. This paper details mechanisms by which RNA viruses beyond just SARS-CoV-2 have be connected to long-term health consequences. It also reviews literature on acute COVID-19 and other virus-initiated chronic syndromes such as post-Ebola syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) to discuss different scenarios for PASC symptom development. Potential contributors to PASC symptoms include consequences from acute SARS-CoV-2 injury to one or multiple organs, persistent reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 in certain tissues, re-activation of neurotrophic pathogens such as herpesviruses under conditions of COVID-19 immune dysregulation, SARS-CoV-2 interactions with host microbiome/virome communities, clotting/coagulation issues, dysfunctional brainstem/vagus nerve signaling, ongoing activity of primed immune cells, and autoimmunity due to molecular mimicry between pathogen and host proteins. The individualized nature of PASC symptoms suggests that different therapeutic approaches may be required to best manage care for specific patients with the diagnosis.


The novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Hiscott et al., 2020). Classic cases of acute COVID-19 are characterized by respiratory symptoms, fever, and gastrointestinal problems (Larsen et al., 2020). However, patients can present with a wide range of other symptoms, including neurological issues suggesting central nervous system (CNS) involvement (Harapan and Yoo, 2021). Acute COVID-19 cases range in length and severity. Many patients are asymptomatic, while others require hospitalization and ventilation (Cunningham et al., 2021). Overall, an average case of COVID-19 lasts between 1 and 4 weeks. However, across the globe, a subset of patients who sustain an acute SARS CoV-2 infection are developing a wide range of persistent symptoms that do not resolve over the course of many months (Carfì et al., 2020Davis et al., 2020Huang C. et al., 2021) (Figure 1). One study of COVID-19 patients who were followed for up to 9 months after illness found that approximately 30% reported persistent symptoms (Logue et al., 2021). These patients are being given the diagnosis Long COVID, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS), or post-acute sequelae of COVID-19.

For More Information: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.698169/full